The Volcanoes National Park (French: Parc National des Volcans) lies in northwestern Rwanda and borders Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park in Uganda. The national park is known as a haven for the mountain gorilla. All year round, tourists travel to Rwanda’s Volcanoes National Park to meet the mountain gorillas in their natural home.
Volcanoes National Park remains the most preferred destination by tourists on Rwanda safari. The park is also home to five of the eight volcanoes of the Virunga Mountains (Karisimbi, Bisoke, Muhabura, Gahinga, and Sabyinyo), which are covered in rain forest and bamboo.
The park was the base for the zoologist Dian Fossey.
When you think of Rwanda gorilla safaris, there is only one place to keep in mind – Volcanoes National Park.
The Volcanoes National Park is the easiest accessible park in East Africa for all visitors interested to see mountain gorillas. From Kigali, you can spend only 2-3 hours to drive to this park and because of its close proximity to Kigali city centre, it is possible to plan for a short trip of 1-5 days. Or you can drive from Kabale via Katuna border, then drive to Ruhengeri or connect from Kisoro-Chanika border to Volcanoes National Park.
This splendid park is found within the Virunga Massifs, North-western Rwanda only 2 and half hours’ drive away from Kigali city.
Importance of the Volcanoes National Park
The 160sq.kms Volcanoes NP, established in 1925 is one of the 4 parks in Africa where mountain gorillas live – currently remaining not more than 1063 individuals on earth.
The other 3 parks to visit for mountain gorilla trekking adventures include Virunga National Park of Congo, Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park all found in Southwestern Uganda. About half of all the 1063 mountain gorillas reside in Uganda’s two parks- Bwindi and Mgahinga.
Rwanda’s Volcanoes National Park was first gazetted in 1925, as a small area bounded by Karisimbi, Visoke, and Mikeno, intended to protect the gorillas from poachers. It was the very first National Park to be created in Africa. Subsequently, in 1929, the borders of the park were extended further into Rwanda and into the Belgian Congo, to form the Albert National Park, a huge area of 8090 km², run by the Belgian colonial authorities who were in charge of both colonies. In 1958, 700 hectares of the park were cleared for a human settlement.
After the Congo gained independence in 1960, the park was split into two, and upon Rwandan independence in 1962, the new government agreed to maintain the park as a conservation and tourist area, despite the fact that the new republic was already suffering from overpopulation problems. The park was halved in area in 1969. Between 1969 and 1973, 1050 hectares of the park were cleared to grow pyrethrum.
The park later became the base for the American naturalist, Dian Fossey, to carry out her research into the gorillas. She arrived in 1967 and set up the Karisoke Research Centre between Karisimbi and Visoke. From then on she spent most of her time in the park and is widely credited with saving the gorillas from extinction by bringing their plight to the attention of the international community. She was murdered by unknown assailants at her home in 1985, a crime often attributed to the poachers she had spent her life fighting against.
Fossey’s life later was portrayed on the big screen in the film Gorillas in the Mist, named after her autobiography. She is buried in the park in a grave close to the research center, and amongst the gorillas which became her life.
The Volcanoes National Park became a battlefield during the Rwandan Civil War, with the park headquarters being attacked in 1992. The research centre was abandoned, and all tourist activities (including visiting the gorillas) were stopped. They did not resume again until 1999 when the area was deemed to be safe and under control. There have been occasional infiltrations by Rwandan rebels from the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda in subsequent years, but these are always stopped quickly by the Rwandan army and there is thought to be no threat to tourism in the park.
Flora and fauna
Vegetation varies considerably due to the large altitudinal range within the park. There is some lower montane forest (now mainly lost to agriculture). Between 2400 and 2500 m, there is Neoboutonia forest. From 2500 to 3200 m Arundinaria alpina (bamboo) forest occurs, covering about 30% of the park area. From 2600 to 3600 m, mainly on the more humid slopes in the south and west, is Hagenia-Hypericum forest, which covers about 30% of the park. This is one of the largest forests of Hagenia abyssinica. The vegetation from 3500 to 4200 m is characterized by Lobelia wollastonii, L. lanurensis, and Senecio erici-rosenii and covers about 25% of the park. From 4300 to 4500 m grassland occurs. Secondary thicket, meadows, marshes, swamps and small lakes also occur, but their total area is relatively small.
The park is best known for the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). Other mammals include golden monkey (Cercopithecus mitis kandti), black-fronted duiker (Cephalophus niger), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus). There are also reported to be some elephants in the park, though these are now very rare. There are 178 recorded bird species, with at least 13 species and 16 subspecies endemic to the Virunga and Ruwenzori Mountains.
When to visit Volcanoes National Park Rwanda
Volcanoes N/Park Rwanda is open for tourism all-year-round. But Rwanda safaris are excellent conducted during the dry season -June to September or December to February. These are ideal months of the year to explore Volcanoes N.P on guided gorilla trekking, volcano climbing, golden monkey tracking and more.
Where to stay
The accommodation facilities to consider for overnight sleep in and around Volcanoes NP include The Virunga Hotel, La Palme Hotel, Five Volcanoes Hotel, Sabyinyo Silverback Lodge, Villa Gorilla Lodge, Mountain Gorilla View Hotel, Le Bambou Gorilla Lodge, Kinigi Guesthouse and others.